Waste as defined by Oxford English dictionary as the unserviceable material remaining over from any process of manufacture; the useless bye product of any industrial process; materials or manufactured articles so damaged as to be useless or unsaleable,which may include both domestic and agricultural form of waste.In otherwords emphasis on its uselessness or unserviceabilities.
It is a worthless material removed in mining or digging operations.
Waste could be toxic, nuclear,domestic,gaseous, solid e.t.c
World Health Organisation (WHO) defines it as something which the owner no longer wants at a given place and time and which has no current and perceived market value.
In summary Oily waste, is the useless oily bye product of any industrial, material, domestic and agricultural liquids that do not mix easily under normal temperature with water and usually burns easily,obtained from plants,animals and minerals.
Types of oil wastes-
Light hydrocarbons(gasoline,kerosine and jetfuel),
Heavy hydrocarbons(fuels and tars,crude oil,diesel oil,residual il, slop oil,asphalt and road tar.
Lubricants and cutting fluids-emulsifiable(fat ,soap e.t.c) and non-emulsifiable (watersoluble oils,rolling oils, cutting oils and drawing compound)
Fats and fatty oils(soybeans,cottnseed,linseed and corn.
effects of oily wastes
The oily waste has a devastating effects on the ecological systems especially when it comes in large tonnes. It destabilizes the socio economic activities of the affected areas and can practically wipe out a serene and peaceful ecosystem.
Oil spillages in Niger Delta causes breakdown of aquatic and plant lives, depriving the farmers of good arable lands to cultivate and also rendering the coastal waters without fish for the farmers,thereby sending them out of their daily jobs.
When grasses,fishes and other aquatic animals are destroyed, the coastal water are polluted,living it dirty and untreated ,this usually causes a negative impact on tourism so a great amount of economic benefit is lost.
sources of oily wastes
oily wastes are gotten from-Petroleum,Metals,Food Processing,textiles and in the process of cooling and heating of industrial machines.
ways of eliminating oily wastes
Through improved industrial/technological process-For example in 1989 “the Thames water Authority developed avessel that injectsup to 30 tonnes of oxygen a day into the river when pollution threatens aquatic life.In California a form of steam cleaning wasdeveloped to removes petrochemical from contaminated soil.
Solar energy can also be used to destroy toxic waste.
Also through conservation of energy and recycling.
Conversion into useful functions, for example gas production
Cleaning up of contaminated sites
Substituting harmless for harmful techniques
Problems against eliminating oily wastes
1, Presently in Nigeria, there is no strong control act that is comprehensive enough and with bitting capability to improve water quality with implementation at the federal,state and local government levels which will guarantee water sufficiently pure for swimming and other recreational uses and the sustenance of fish with other widlife and total elimination of discharges of pollutants into the nations water.
2,Political problems, In Britain, the governent policy makes industry as the major cause of waste,provides for most of the cash to identify and clean up contaminated lands.
But in Nigeria no effective policy to make the companies especially oil companies responsible for it.
3,Administrative problems,Putting round peg in round holes also goes a long way to make sure that wastes are properly disposed off in this age of advance technological know how.
4,Obsolete equipments, This is also most noticeable in the Niger Delta where pipes that are old and leaking are still being used to convey oil.The defective parts constitutes great danger to the community.
5,Ignorance,A case is that of a man who rented out his land as a store for an Italian residing in nigeria who dumped 3,884 tonnes of chemical waste in 10,000 drums in old Bendel state.
6,Financial rewards, As in the case of the man mentioned above,he was given N500 per month to hire his land in may 1988.