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Types of foundation and their uses

Foundation of building as the name implies is the starting of a building construction on site really. Types of building, nature of soil and environmental conditions are the major determinant of type of foundation you will use for your building.
1)Strip foundation-This is the most common type, it is mainly used where you have strong soil base and non-waterlogged areas. Most small buildings of just a floor are constructed with this type of foundation .
Depends on the structural engineers recommendation , the depth of your foundation could be from 600mm to 1200mm mostly for small scale buildings . When the soil is excavated, a level at which the concrete will settle evenly is established, then concrete is poured this may be from 150mm(6”) thick to 450mm(18”) thick depending also on building after that block is set round the trenches at the center of foundation ,the foundation usually follows the block lines. The blocks are then layed to d.p.c level before another concrete is poured on top, this is the german or oversite concrete. This type seems to be the cheapest.
2)Pad foundation-This is where isolated columns (pillars) are casted from the foundation to carry a slab at the top of the ground. This is mostly used when you want to make use of the under of building as parking space or when the other space is not conducive to have foundation. Imagine you are planning to build a house across a flowing stream and you want a situation where you can use your boat to pass under the building because the stream is under . Then you may not need to dig foundation that will cut across the river but just by applying columns (pillars) at the edge of the river like a bridge, this columns are thus isolated and there foundations are reffered to as pad.
3)Raft foundation-This is where you have concrete spread around your building from the base of foundation all through to the german floor/oversite concrete/ground floor slab. It is mainly used in areas where the soil are sandy and loose, you spend more on this than the other previous two most of the time. It is also recommended in waterlogged areas but with buildings of less storeys
It has a ground beam which shuts out from the foundation base and is also attached to the ground floor slab to form a network of concrete embedded round the building space. The ground beam are usually from 600mm to 1200mm for low buildings.
4)Pile foundation-The most expensive and the strongest type of foundation, this requires specialist engineering to do. The soil are bored deep down the earth and filled with concrete to be able to support loads of multistory building on top. Most skyscrapers are constructed with this foundation type, a waterlogged area of high building may also require this.
It is the costliest hence it is used for high rise building mostly.

This entry was posted on Sunday, March 9th, 2008 at 9:03 pm and is filed under Uncategorized. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

162 Responses to “Types of foundation and their uses”

  1. Tsivor Bernard Says:

    what are the factor to consider when selecting a foundation for steel frame structure on a clay soil.

  2. arc SAMAILA ADAMU Says:

    I like you response toward sensitizing people on how about there house work

  3. emma Says:

    Thank you.

  4. Id Says:

    Hi Emma,
    Thanks for the very useful details embedded in your site.
    I’m planning a project (4 flats-3bedrooms each) with pile foundation in a water logged area. My concern is on having an efficient damp proof course as I hate the sight of wet walls and fence. Please advise on the best and most efficient way of stopping the capillary pressure rise of the water based on the latest available technology in the industry.

    Cheers,
    Id

  5. ayodele abidogun Says:

    thanks but i will like to get more information about all the other types of foundations

  6. benedict kissang Says:

    im a student of building in nigeria.i enjoy reading most of your article on building.keep the good work moving. benedict from yola.

  7. moses Says:

    Thank’s for this anyway, But elaborate on the types of foundation also.

  8. muhammad abdullahi Says:

    thanks i got all what i need

  9. Adetunji Idris A. Says:

    thanks for the info. you’ve really worked, but you should write about the other types of foundation

  10. obalanlege ahmed adedeji Says:

    i got what i need.thanks alot

  11. obalanlege ahmed adedeji Says:

    but type of foundation is about six types,so why four?

  12. afolabi sadiq Says:

    thanks i got what i needed but wud have love to see d pictures too but all d same thanks

  13. wisdom Says:

    i am a student in nigeria, i need a comprehensive write-up on the different methods and types of foundation

  14. tibsin Says:

    can you state types of soil suitable for each foundation

  15. Busari lekan Says:

    Thanks for your replies

  16. deyemi Says:

    Kindly give a picture or diagram of the raft foundation showing the laout

  17. Lekan oyelodi Says:

    Thanks a lot i have got what i whant.

  18. ragu akshaye Says:

    i want the factor of foundation

  19. adeleke oluwatobi semiu Says:

    wel i got it but i’ll like 2 knw more abt wide strip foundation & deep strip foundation and pics on hw it look lik thanks alot.

  20. Alfredy Sembisa Says:

    Thanks. But what about Stepped foundations?

  21. emma Says:

    Stepped foundation as you rightly said it is just a derivations from the other major foundation types listed above. Step is used where you have obvious slopes or sharp gradient. A strip foundation can be stepped likewise others.

  22. Ineji paul Says:

    Thanks for the information, but you should have explian more extensively with diagrames

  23. emma Says:

    Thanks I will do soon.

  24. emma Says:

    ok. just from inference one is wide the other is deep..lol

  25. emma Says:

    Thank you

  26. emma Says:

    ok

  27. emma Says:

    ok I will in my next article

  28. emma Says:

    The one listed are the major ones every other types are derivatives of the ones you have now. But will still work on it anyway.

  29. Oladeji sodiq Says:

    Thank you, but the real picture of the foundations is needed please.

  30. Ambrossy Elliah Says:

    I like this page becouse it make me to understand the whole foundation but one thing it is beter to place a required diagram in each foundation

  31. Joatta dominic Says:

    thanks a lot i got what i need. i propose that you include diagrams in the content explanation.

  32. Oke Temidayo Says:

    Thanks, i got it. It was really useful to me

  33. Tunde Fuad Says:

    What type of foundation is the one in which you erect several concrete pillars at intervals arising from the foundation concrete as well as filling the blocks holes with concrete to DPC level? And when is such indicated if at all it serves any advantage?

    Thank you

  34. GBOYEGA Says:

    i understand raft foundation is best for ikoyi,ajah,lekki e.t.c.but which of these types of foundations is mostly used on mainland or Ogun state where soil is strong and clayish.considering a twin duplex.or 1 strorey.

  35. ola Says:

    This topic is nice. But the problem is that you do your calculation in milimeters rather than in feet. This confuses many NIgerians, nearly all of who are used to the feet measurement system.

  36. Scan dat Cares Says:

    pls i want you to describe foundation to me base on the components of building or structures

  37. chidi Says:

    @Ola: Learn the conversion factor.25mm=1 inch. 12 inches=1 foot. i.e. 25 x 12 inches or 300mm=1 foot.

  38. Essuman Forson Says:

    I really like this page.Because it has brainstorm my understanding about foundation.Thank you!

  39. moses okon Says:

    Your site is really a sure problem solver from my own perspective, i benefit a loot since i come in contact with your site just remain a blessing to the profession.

  40. Olatunde Makinde Says:

    Thanks for the effort in getting us information. You are really a blessing to this profession.

  41. chi Says:

    highly informative…great job..thumbs up!

  42. adekunle Says:

    thank u for these simple explanation

  43. Nnacheta m.c Says:

    Very educative. Keep it up!

  44. Adizue.E Says:

    Wow just straight to the point, Thank you!!!

  45. ibrahim Says:

    need a reply on land acquisition free areas

  46. ismaila ogunshola Says:

    i am ismaila ogunshola frm kaduna polytechnic i am as 2 research but due 2 ur effort i get want i want ones without stresssed tanks keeping d flag up continueosly

  47. Igbokwe innocent Says:

    Pls i want you people explain more on foundation reinforcement for me.

  48. Nduenso Says:

    The great builders pls keep it on you guys are wonderful

  49. pandeng Says:

    thank you i just got good ways to study because i am student doing civil engineering and i was doing foundation and i got good notes than what is in the book

  50. Dimeji Says:

    show us d diagram of this different types of foundations practically

  51. Mick miry Says:

    It very usefull when you come on foundation sector’ good thing in advace but would like to know much about foundation- like what are the first concdaration when you come in choosing the foundation type,?
    Thank you!

  52. ogunbayo.r.anuoluwapo Says:

    am a student of estate mgt,nneed foundation drawings 4 my project,u gys re doiinn a great job,keep it up

  53. NICCO BROWN Says:

    Thats great, but i want to know that, what are the factors to consider when choosing the type of foundations.

  54. I like this page it make me well understand all d foundation we commonlly used pls try to show diagram Says:

    Thanks alot

  55. Tasleem yusuf Says:

    U’r wonderful.wen u inform,u empower.wen u empower u transform and 4 evry transformation u stimulate a reward 4rm d almighty

  56. Bii Jude Says:

    I am a Civil Engineering student in Nigeria, I enjoy reading your articles.

  57. Fagbemi elijah Says:

    Thanks a lot this helped me in my engineering workshop technology.

  58. Utibeabasi okon Says:

    Tanks alot 4 d article, its really encouraging! Pls i need d diagrams, measurements and d calculations involved…..tanks

  59. Olatunji Muili Abiodun Says:

    Thanks for been there for us.But I wish to know if there is any site to read about all aspect of building construction.

  60. Akinyemi Says:

    Thanks for d post,it really helps a lot..Stanchion base foundation is not discussed here

  61. ayodele Says:

    how mane blocks make three feat

  62. ayodele Says:

    how many blocks make three feat

  63. Buddy p Says:

    I am a student in KTTC-KENYA taking a course in civil engineering and i have found the information in your website so helpful in my studies.Please post for us some more information on other areas of study.

  64. zubayr sambo Says:

    thank you alot,i have got what i want!

  65. dafe Says:

    very helpful information on this site. please am a student am i need some training and i want to specialize.please advise

  66. ak Says:

    i need 10 types of foundation

  67. Samuel Chinonso Says:

    Very educative indeed. Keep d flag flying, perherps, diagrams will be essential.

  68. Blessing Says:

    Thanks guys,this has really been helpful.

  69. adedayo Says:

    Am a building final year student from obafemi awolowo university ILE IFE( GREAT IFE)…..keep up the good work….. just got solution to one of my assignment.

  70. Gomina Says:

    Thanks for giving a more useful detail on foundation

  71. emma Says:

    Whatever you chose just work hard on it. Every job pays.

  72. emma Says:

    three feet is 900mm conventionally, the height of a block is taken as 225 and the width is taken as 450mm so for the width is 2 blocks for height is 4 blocks.
    Remember the 4 blocks after german/oversite concrete floor before window when you are building is always measured on drawing as 900mm.

  73. emma Says:

    Thanks

  74. student arc. akynzee Says:

    Am a student of architectural department and I luv ur contribution on dis work, please keep d ball rolling. Akynzee

  75. Isiorji charles Emeka, oh my God of technology, i appriciated all d contrbtd made by evrybdy, but 2 KCIS, i must remind hm dat estimate doesn't made only 4 d Qtity Surveyor. Builder,Arch,Qtity, Civil r bros dat no one can wrk witout d assist of odas. Thnk Says:

    I am a graduate of Building Technology, and newly recruiting to teach Brick Block laying and Concrete at GTC so wit this from u and acquired one 4rm university, i am highly indebted in the field i can face any challenging situation 4rm the students. Thks alot,keep d gud work,

  76. Precious choju Says:

    Am a student of civil-engineering, your good work has been of great help to me. Thanks

  77. AbdulRafiu Says:

    U are good,tell them more.

  78. JOE Says:

    Am building on a claye soil, do i need to pour sand in to the strip foundation before applying the foundation concrete?If so what thickness of sand can i apply? in general how do i treat a building on a claye soil, thanks for your attention

  79. Kayode Laurence B Says:

    You have really tried on the types of foundation explain but this are the commonly used types of foundation can you explain the remaining types for me. You can help send it to my mail box.

  80. Abdulsalam jamiu Says:

    Thank u vry much for the details

  81. ibrahim quadrat Says:

    Thank u I got what I want, but where can I see there diagram

  82. Obeng Says:

    Is it good to get a water logged area for a cheap price and build there, what i mean is that if there is a way of building strong houses in those areas, that will not bring any future problems.

  83. Oluwadare thompson Says:

    Fanks you av made my reading abt foundation more easier (frm futmx)

  84. Olagoke Adegoke Says:

    I am cevil engr student of Unilag 300level , i want you to enlight me more about other type of building

  85. iam civil eng.student federal polytechnic nasarawa i want u to enlight me more about the structure of road and surveying Says:

    thank u so much for being there for me any time i needed u for any help

  86. eugene Says:

    educative and informative in this my career

  87. oyinloye michael adebayo Says:

    i’m a student of federal government academy, suleja. Your article just added a great compliment to my project. I need 2 know d processes involved in buildig on a construction site. Tanx

  88. optimist Says:

    Goodday Mr Emma, i must congratulate you on your efforts in getting us informed about building work,i say God bless you for all youe efforts.I actually would love it if you inform us all about roof and the types of roof particularly iron/iron roofing. thanks very much for your understanding.

  89. Vikas singh Says:

    This material is grate for us.and if it possible add some fig of plans of building aspects.

  90. godwin Says:

    i realy apreciate your effort in fact i enjoyd wat i was ready nd d same time studying.pls i wnt to knw d best foundation for a bungalow in a waterloggd area nd in a land wer its soil are loos.please one more tin,how would i knw wen a structural plan or desigo is correct nd complete.thanks

  91. Adeolu Elisha Says:

    Indeed,dis is an exposition to the efficacy of foundation in every structures and building.It’s a well commendable pieces and a job well done.
    Sir,kindly put some of the diagram of this various type of foundation to enhance a better understanding of it

  92. Banki Says:

    Thank you sir, great job, well done and May GOD bless you

  93. Sadiq Bashir Says:

    Tnx for dis vital info. This is realy wonderful. Keep it up

  94. Mudassir Abbas Says:

    please elaborate types of foundation drainage

  95. Muh'd B Alkali Says:

    I’m studt of bulding technology at Ramat polytechnic m/guri, i realy got the answer to my assignment but need to hv there diagram.

  96. George Victor, a fresh graduate frm AIFPU, EBONYI STATE. Says:

    I appreciate ur toturial, it has been a gr8t help 2 pple in construction industry.

  97. Fabolous Blesin Says:

    I’m a student of civil engr, i dnt knw about d rest guy dat hav read dis, but i must confess dat d writer did a nice job dere

  98. oyeka chri Says:

    learnt of new foundation design/construction popular in south korea, for high rise buildings, using plastic cones filled with concrete and layed over the building area. The spaces inbetween the cones filled with granite. am interested in the theory.

  99. abubakar sadiq Says:

    emma tankz 4 d publishment keep it on may God help us all

  100. adewunmi joseph Says:

    A surveyor will lov this site.

  101. kenedy /ambiye Says:

    Just want to know more on structural elements

  102. Ibrahim m gani Says:

    Thanks alot i empressed but we like to hear the remaing onece and also the drwing of each type

  103. Arc Ofagbonmu Ben Says:

    Thanks a lot for the write up you are wonderful, just try to elaborate more using diagrams in your next article, you are bless.

  104. KINGSLEY SOLOMON Says:

    I wan2 thank Emma 4d 1derful job u’r doing.I wan2 also thank evry1 4 ur contributions.I do Pilling Foundation in swamps n loose sand areas.I also construct d motorize rig.It’s also available 4 sales.Pls do contact me:08069643255,07032941661, kifeta5@gmail.com or kifeta@yahoo.com.I live around Ipaja.God bless you all.

  105. KINGSLEY SOLOMON Says:

    I do Pilling Foundation in swamps n loose sand areas.I also construct d motorize rig.It’s also available 4 sales.Pls do contact me:08069643255,07032941661, kifeta5@gmail.com or kifeta@yahoo.com.I live around Ipaja.God bless you all.

  106. mbiaka kelechi Says:

    you are in deed a mentor and i will like to learn more from you.

  107. dolap akerele Says:

    I really like dis site more power to ur elbow

  108. Dalhatu Ozegya Obi Says:

    Am a student of civil engineering from unimaid, Borno state

  109. ashiru sule Says:

    i’m highly impressed with this sumary of foundations, i benefited alot from it.keep the gud job on.Diagrams should be included pls.

  110. ayelaagbe ezra Says:

    i urgently started my one story school building in lekki (sandy soil) with pad foundation when the “omoniles” were threatning to hijack the land. it is yet at DPC. without raft can I continue or what shall I do?

  111. emma Says:

    ok

  112. James Monday Says:

    am a student of civil engeering,from federal poly.idah to uniben 200Level.U guys are real

  113. Chimexnwodo Says:

    Details on earthwork support

  114. M.N.Waihd Says:

    thanks i got that that i want,,

  115. Adewale Says:

    Can i have this and other informations forwarded to my mail box please and subsequent news letters
    Thanks

  116. emma Says:

    Yes thats what we do regularly anytime new article is written.
    Thanks

  117. erza ardenta Says:

    how to establish a foundation and the requries

  118. S Darma Says:

    Hi,I’m a student of kat poly studying Q.S,I really enjoy reading your articles on so many subjects related to Quantity survey. Thank you

  119. francis Says:

    I won’t to know moor abut building and contractorsecrets

  120. Jerry Romeo ebirim Says:

    Thanks a lot I got exactly what I needed

  121. Rodger Mokol Says:

    am a cvil engineering student from Kenya.Indeed impressed by the detailed summary,it has helpd alot.thank you.

  122. billy smith Says:

    sup brav i copy and pasted all of your work and got a A in design and tec lol :) ) thanks

  123. Tony Osi Igene Says:

    I really appreciate and commend you for this very important and educative imformation on this site. I got what i expected…. so comprehensive! Pls, keep this up.

  124. Andrew Araha T Says:

    I want you to give and explain me different types of foundations and where (ground conditions) that each one is suitable to introduce on. I also want images of each type of foundation.

  125. Andrew Araha T Says:

    I want a three bedroom house plan.Including floor plan,measurements, scale used, 4 elevations, plumbing, electrical layout and foundation layout(structure)

  126. Shimakaa Nguuma Says:

    @Andrew, are u serious? Lets do business.

  127. lawrencejoseph Says:

    ur contribution has indeed help us in erecting our building,d pad foundation was realy ok for my building

  128. Yasmin Says:

    hi,can some one please describe briefly the various types of foundations and the circumstances in which they are used.Identify the causes of foundation failure .Thanks

  129. Bldr. Kunlefads Says:

    First and foremost, Soil Investigation is VERY CRITICAL to determine the behavior of the soil under load… A soil investigation for a plot could cost about N250K and all you need is 2 Boreholes test and one CPT…

    From the soil investigation report, you will be advised on the type of foundation that the soil can bear depending on the load coming on it.

    For Shallow Foundation:

    you have the Strip, raft and the Pad foundation… This is a function of the bearing capacity of the soil…

    if the building is a bungalow and the soil is a laterite soil and has a high bearing capacity, then a strip footing could be used… Depending on the load of the bungalow, all thanks to our architects, sometimes the strip could be reinforced…

    If the building is a bungalow and the soil is very weak, then the building should be framed and be on a Raft foundation…

    If the building is a storey building or 2, I will recommend it to be framed and founded on a Raft or pad… depending on the soil type…

    if the building is a storey building or more and its on a weak soil, you could go for either a raft, pad or pile depending on the soil profile and properties from the soil investigation report.

    If the building is a storey building and the area is swampy, I would recommend a combined foundation of a pile and a raft (ground beams) or a pad and raft (ground beams)..

    From the above you will agree with me that soil investigation is very critical…. Most client run away from this but a professionals always insist and educate them on the importance.

    Also based on experience and exposure on geotechnical engineering and structural designs you can determine the best option for the buildings… Always remember that Nigerian clients are different… today they say its for residential, tomorrow the convert it to commercials (Increase in loads) and then rent it out to a church (More load and vibrations from church instruments)…. all these have different impact on the Building that was once designed as residential….

    For multistory… then you can go for a Pile – Precast or Cast insitu Piles etc….

    For Precast Piles the ground bearing is improved by the constantly hammering the piles into the ground there by increasing the skin friction. Depending on how the piles are design it could be friction piles, end bearing piles or combination of both.

  130. Bright Says:

    Sir i am working on a topic roof and roof drainage.sir wat is d various type of roof drainage

  131. Alhassan y. Abubakar Says:

    I’m student of NSP zungeru dept of civil engineering HND II

  132. Ayoba Says:

    Pls for upland of Lekki,Ibeju area precisely (along EPE road), must your foundation be raft too? Must concrete be spread round for raft foundation or blocks erected in between.

  133. Sunusi Aminu Gimba Says:

    I realy appritiate your educative effort on this site.I got what i want,but i’m very sure people,more especialy students would like to see some illustrations like pictures,attached to all this explations. THANKS.

  134. Bunmi Says:

    Well done, the best comment (128), by Bldr. Kunlefads was superb. A lot of Nigerians forget it. please keep
    Up the good work.

  135. I am a zambian student doing construction...I apreciate your but asking if you can answers more detailed especially types and uses of fondations. please. Says:

    Only if you can some answers a bit more detailed, can we continously appreciate your work.

  136. Obi Joe Says:

    Thanks so much for this article this is question i most ask during my interview yesterday….. This is well refreshed to me.

  137. israel rock Says:

    thanks alot sir.bt elaborate on types of foundations.

  138. jp Says:

    what is difference between this types of foundations and basement,crawl space,and slab?. by the way,thank you

  139. saidu Says:

    The information is useful I’m very happy

  140. onayemi Says:

    am a student nd I really appreciate u for all u hv been written.I will luv to hear more on other type of foundation expect those 1 u mention

  141. samson Says:

    Hello Emma,kudos to u on ur outstanding deliveries, they are well appreciatd,thanks. Can u advice, am planing to convert a bungalow to a storey building and I want to just remove the existing roof and put the floor on it. Pls give suggestions on how well to go about this without knocking the existing structure down.

  142. Laurence Says:

    I would like to get some advise. I plan to build a resort of size of 250 feet broad and 65 feet length. The resort raised off the ground on stilts and are divided into 10 house. What is the best foundation for the building. The ground is a solid ground.

  143. Onimisi Says:

    Thanks, i shld ve browsed here b4 nw.,…. God bless

  144. oteje olusoji j Says:

    how can some no the capacity of the soil over a storey building. How can we test the soil???

  145. samuel .T Says:

    i want to write a project in my school on ”plain interlocking tiles” please help me out

  146. Rufusphilip Says:

    Infact, i really enjoying spending the whole day here, please dnt relent on your effort, keep the cutlass cuting

  147. bright Says:

    thank u alot sir ll lik u to enlight me more.

  148. peter Says:

    the information was soo useful thank you

  149. I suleman Says:

    Am grtful for dis information.

  150. OLANIYI ISRAEL IWO Says:

    TANKS A LOT U GUYS.4 A LONG-TIME CONSTRUCTED BUILDING,IF A CRACKING IS OBSERVED ON D WALL;CAUSES ARE:1.settlement of soil at d foundatn 2.poor foundatn design 3.low bearing capacity of soil.etc SOLUTION> {1}.UNDER-PINNING… etc 4 MORE Contact olaniyi iwo osun state 08030971801

  151. Bleznblezn Says:

    I really make use of this site any time i have chanlenges on how to solve problems that may arised on civil engineering works but needs a clear real diagrams of those foundation.Really grateful, more grease to your elbow.

  152. bob the builder Says:

    if you want to build a house just get a 1000 bricks and glue them all together with a pritt stick and then get some see through paper for the windows and doors, job done, bobs your ucle

  153. Damshit Says:

    the post really help me, thanks alot. They are well explained just dat there are no definitions to each of d foundations, i think it will d students. Good work.

  154. Bernad mhagama Says:

    Thank u 4 your help

  155. Mayowa ogunwuyi Says:

    So so relevant, Just what I needed, thanks.

  156. racheal Says:

    tnks 4 dis in4omation it is useful for students like us i luv it

  157. saranya Says:

    thank you so much this is very usefull

  158. Lawal Olayinka Ibrahim Says:

    various types of strip foundation- Deep strip foundation:- it is used when depth of more dan 900mm have to be reached claying or marching soi. Nd Wide stripe foundation:-it is used when soil has a low bearing capacity. Such as soft clay nd build up soil.

  159. lil Says:

    Pls can i get a tree star hotel floor plan

  160. Shehu muhammad idrith Says:

    Pls am student at kano state polytechnic studying civil engineering pls i need more explanation on cellular foundation.

  161. Grace Says:

    Can you please guide me. Is it okay to use Strip Foundation for a one storey building on a dry land in awoyaya axis. My bricklayer suggested this. he said he would then use beams on the german floor. I look forward to your advice.

    Please keep up with the good work. This blog will go places. God bless you sir.

  162. kris kaku Says:

    u guys should out,u guys re not giving me d answers 2 d question i asked dis website abt d diagrams of d types of foundation

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