Factor affecting labour productivity

Labour productivity is simply the output generated by your labour force at a specific time. Labour is one of the most important factors in building construction and affects the overall costs a great deal.
Productivity is the outcome of several interrelated factors amongst are
1-Time- During construction the time allocated should be followed, working overtime causes fatigue, though it initially result in increased output but contuining overtime will lead to increase costs and reduced productivity. An employee works effectively for 3.5 hours of his 8 hour shift. Break time should be observed to refresh and shouldn’t be more than the allocated time, usually 1 hour.
2-Scheduling-Planning the time and comprssion of tasks will give a better output , reduce the time of works completion especially when done effectively in a record time.
3-Project type-When you have a project with different task to achieve . Knowing how to carry out those tasks and minimizing interference on others.
4-Safety-Safety is very important and safety procedures in a construction site must be encouraged and adhere to. Accidents can result to death which may stop project for weeks. and minor accidents from nails and steel wires can stop work.
Employing a safety officer to lecture and organize labour on safety issues and follows required safety regulations can reduce the number of accidents, thus increasing productivity rate.
5-Quality-Inefficient equipments and poor quality materials will affect productivity. Old equipments will slow down labourers. Poor quality materials means poor job which will be rejected by supervisors.
6-Managerial competence- Good jobs requires knowledgeable labourers who in turn works productively under professionally qualified managers. It is only through sound management that you will have optimum utilization of human and technical resources
7- Skilled Manpower-If skilled labour is not available , a contractor will not be able to complete specific tasks or they will be badly done which surely affects productivity.
8-Motivation-Labour must be motivated to work. No delays in emoluments and individual should be encouraged.
9-Supervision- Competent supervisors to interpret drawings should be available on site. Hence productivity will be affected.
10-Materials/tools-Labourer require a minimum numbers of tools and equipments to work effectively to complete the assigned task. If improper tools or equipment is provided, productivity will be affected.
11-Project Management-Improper scheduling, shortage of critical construction equipments will result in loss of productivity.
12-Natural factors-Weather conditions, geographic locations etc
13-Political factors
14-The level of management control- Too much of management control may actually leads to bureaucracy and cause delay.
15-Getting a competent site supervisor-
16-Prompt inspection
17-Coordination of subcontractors-The better the cooperation of subcontractors and work together, the better the output
18-Quality Control-A good quality control system in place will increase labour productivity
19-Communication breakdown-When instructions are not communicated well or not done at all. No synergy or relationship between various groups, then productivity will be affected.
20-Information-Information on what to do, next steps to take and events on site when you aren’t around and not informed to prepare for it , this will also affect.
21-Rework-Mistakes will lead to rework which results in low productivity
22-Congestion-When you have too many people handling a particular task, they will disturb each other and also gives room to cover up for the lazy ones.
23-Sequence of work-Knowing the sequences and following steps will affect productivity positively
24-Availability of workforce- When there is enough labour force, jobs are bound to e better because there will be competition and more people to chose from
25-Financial problems-When there is adequateflow of money , productivity will increase as there is motivation to work and materials are paid for.
26-Availability of materials-Easily available materials, better productivity, no delay of any kind during construction due to shortage of materials
27-Availability of tools and machinery-Choosing construction styles that are easy but effective gives better productivity
28-Method and machinery- Choosing construction styles that are easy but effective gives better productivity
29-Location-If site is easily accessible and located close to labour force, it will affect productivity positively.
30-Inclement weather-Rain and harsh weather will affect productivity negatively
31-Project Characteristics- Complex projects will affect productivity rate negatively
32-Specification-The specification and how easy to implement will affect as well either positively or negatively
33-Design requirement- The more complex and clumsy the design, the lower the productivity
34-Project Size-Size may also affect productivity if its too small or too big in relation to labour.
35- Site access-Good acces better productivity.
36-Quality experience and training-Artesans and professionals with good training and quality experience will give better labour productivity
37-Disturbance- Site nuisances from unscrupulous element in the area and any other disturbances can down morale and affect labour productivity.
38-Morality-Discipline is required, the more morally upright the workers the better productivity
39-Frequent changes of labour-It takes time to master a place and task , when labour force are frequently changed it will take time for new ones to acclamatise and may also requires additional training which lso affects productivity rate
40-Communication problems among the labourers
41-Turnover-Higher turnover is also a morale booster for any labour force especially when it trickles down to the lowest on cadre in the labour force
42-Absenteeism- Frequent absence of workers will reduce labour productivity rate.
43-Overtime-Initially overtime increases productivity but at a longer time it reduces productivity drastically, the labour will experience fatigue and there will be drop in output.
44-Order Variations-When orders for the site are attached it will affect labour as what they prepare their mind for concerning strategies and tactics to carry out tasks may change.
45-Economic conditions-Better economic condition improves lives which also boost morale and affects productivity
46-Development and research- Good research and development culture/institution will give better ways of getting tasks done which will increase productivity
47-Accidents- Accidents will cause delay or total breakdown/soppage of work which affects labour productivity negatively
48-Construction method
49-Alternating drawings and specifications during construction- This could be as a result of clients request or adjustments from the architect/designers which will slow down pace of work and affects productivity.
50-Government regulations- Can affect both negatively and positively
51-High quality of required work- Without adequate trainings and quality materials , quality buildings may be difficult to achieve , hence enforcing high quality may cause serious delay and rework
52-Too many labourers on a task will cause confusion and disturbances which will affect productivity negatively
53-Bad equipments-Terrible equipments frustrate labourers and reduces productivity
54-Delay inspection-Because approval is required for next stage when supervisors delays inspection time is wasted and mistakes which requires rework will be rampart
55-Transportation-Transporting workers to and out of site will also determine how willing most labourers will be ready to be in your payroll and the faster they can get to their destinations te better the productivity
56-Insufficient lighting-Especially at night or dark corridor can reduce productivity rate
57-Labour absenteeism- When this is rampart, it affects general work, destabilizing sequence which can affect work rate
58-Labour disloyalty- Of course if you have recalcitrant labourers, job will not be done when you want it and well
59-Lack of competition- will make labourers complacent and may not force them to put in their best
60-Lack of financial motivation system-Without labour motivated financially as a reward for a good job, it will affect subsequent product. Nobody will be ready to do more if they aren’t getting anything for the extra effort
61-Lack of labour experience-Low experience, low productivity rate
62-Lack of periodic meetings with labour- workers needs where they can air their views and individual tasks reviewed for better planning which gives better productivity rate
63-Labour personal problems-Emotional/psychological evaluation is also necessary. You need to know your workers are in right frame of mind to get a better work rate
64-No eating and relaxation place-This must be provided
65-Lack of training-You need to constantly train the labour force if they are with you for long
66-Low quality of raw materials-Is important you have quality raw materials for a better output
67-Material shortage-Incessant shortage of materials will cause delay and affects the labour productivity rate
68-Misunderstanding among labourers-Quarrel, infighting will cause drop in productivity
69-Misunderstanding between labourers and supervisors
70-Misuse or no time schedule will also affect negatively
71-Payment delays-Payments are made but delayed, motivation and morale will go down, labour also needs personal issues to fix with money
72-Rework
73-Supervisors absenteeism- Quality control will be affected and without proper guidance , productivity will drop due to rework
74-Tool and equipment shortages
75-Type of activities in project
76-Unsuitable material storage location
77-Violation of safety precautions
78-Change in weather conditions can affect either negatively or positively
79-Working in high altitudes-Phobia for height and how comfortable the labourers are working in such height will also affect productivity
80-Working overtime
81-Alcoholism-Drinking alcohol at work should be minimized
82-Age-the youthful the labour force, the better the result. Too young laboourers or too old is a disadvantage
83-Variation in the drawings
84-Incomplete drawings
85-Inspection delays from authorities
86-Supervision delays
87-Complex designs in the drawings will slow down workers
88-Poor site conditions
89-Differing site conditions from plan
90-Material storage location- how easy to access
91-Poor access within site
92-Increase in price of materials being used
93-Problem of labour transportation
94-Shortage of water
95-shortage of power supply
96-Accidents during onstruction.