Iran, Iraq and Libya – all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) – and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the agreement. These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those set out in other international agreements. Although the system does not include financial sanctions, the requirements are intended to easily monitor the progress of individual nations and promote a sense of overall group pressure, discouraging any towing of feet among countries that might consider it. The Paris Agreement was launched at the signing on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After the agreement was ratified by several EU member states in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases in the world for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement came into force on November 4, 2016.  As part of the co-presidency of COP21, France`s strategy includes a wide range of high-level actors (French President, Special Envoy for the Planet, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Climate Ambassadors) supported by a multidisciplinary inter-ministerial team. While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  To avoid major changes in life as we know it, global action is needed.
That is why the Paris Agreement, which aims to limit global warming, rises to 1.5 degrees Celsius this century. In fact, the seemingly small difference between 1.5 and 2 degrees could have dramatic consequences on deep nations and coral reefs. In 1992, President George H.W. Bush joined 107 other heads of state at the Rio Earth Summit in Brazil to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today.